Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

High blood pressure is when the long-term pressure of the blood remains high enough to cause problems with the arteries. Blood pressure is determined by measuring the amount of blood your heart pumps and the opposing resistance created by the blood flowing in the veins. So the more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your veins, the higher your blood pressure.

You can live with hypertension for years without any symptoms. But even without symptoms, hypertension can damage your blood vessels and heart. It increases your risk of serious health problems, including uncontrolled high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke.

High blood pressure often develops insidiously over many years and affects your health. Fortunately, hypertension is an easily detectable disease. If you know that your blood pressure is high, consult your doctor as soon as possible.


Hypertension Symptoms

Most people with high blood pressure may have no signs or symptoms even if their blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.

A person with high blood pressure may have a headache, shortness of breath, or nosebleeds, but these signs and symptoms are not very distinctive and usually may not manifest until high blood pressure becomes serious or life-threatening. In some patients, even a small degree of high blood pressure may cause complaints that decrease the quality of life.


When to See a Doctor?

Ask your doctor or any healthcare facility to take a blood pressure measurement every time you visit. If you are over 18 years old or at risk of high blood pressure, ask your doctor to do a blood pressure check for you every year.

In order to determine whether the blood pressure is usually different, it should be checked on both arms, and the highest arm should be followed from that arm. It is an important detail to use a measuring device (sleeve) that is the right size for your arm.

If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure or have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, your doctor will likely recommend more frequent blood pressure measurements.

If you cannot see your doctor regularly, visit a health center, etc. We recommend you to have a blood pressure control free of charge.


Types of Hypertension

There are two types of high blood pressure.


Primary (Essential) Hypertension

For most adults, high blood pressure has no identifiable cause. This type of high blood pressure, also called primary (essential) hypertension, develops gradually over the years. This type of hypertension is the most common type and usually develops depending on genetic characteristics. Other organ dysfunctions that may cause hypertension cannot be detected in the examinations.


Secondary Hypertension

Some people have high blood pressure for a specific underlying cause. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to come on suddenly. In the evaluations made, the reasons causing hypertension are revealed.

Various causes can cause secondary hypertension, as seen below.


Obstructive sleep apnea
Kidney problems
Adrenal gland tumors
Thyroid problems
Some congenital problems in blood vessels
Birth control pills, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers, and some prescription medications
Illegal drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines
Old age
Having blood pressure disease in the family
Being overweight or obese
Not being physically active enough
Tobacco use
Too much salt in the diet
Too little potassium in the diet
High alcohol consumption

If you have such risks, consult your doctor about hypertension.

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